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Commemorative Cross for the 1916-1918 War with ‘Oituz’, ‘Carpati’ and ‘Ardeal’ bars (Crucea Comemorativă a Războiului 1916-1918 cu bareti ‘Oituz’, ‘Carpaţi’ şi ‘Ardeal’)
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Commemorative Cross for the 1916-1918 War with ‘Oituz’, ‘Carpati’ and ‘Ardeal’ bars (Crucea Comemorativă a Războiului 1916-1918 cu bareti ‘Oituz’, ‘Carpaţi’ şi ‘Ardeal’)
Click to enlarge

Gilt bronze cross barbée, the arms hatched, with laterally pierced loop for ribbon suspension; the face with a central circular medallion bearing the crowned cipher of King Ferdinand; the reverse with a central circular medallion bearing the dates ‘1916’ and ‘1918’; on original ribbon with bronze ‘OITUZ’, ‘CARPATI’ (Carpathians) and ‘ARDEAL’ (Transylvania) bars. The medal was instituted by Royal Decree on 8 July 1918 to be awarded to military and civilians for conspicuous service during the war of 1916-1918. Despite alliances with Germany and Austria-Hungary and a Royal House of German origin, Romania entered World War I on the side of the Triple Entente of Britain, Russia and France, swayed by the promise of Transylvania. German and Austro-Hungarian forces made rapid advances and the Romanian Army suffered devastating defeat. However, the War brought revolution in Russia, defeat for Germany and disintegration for Austria-Hungary and Romania gained not only Transylvania but also Bessarabia and Bukovina. The ‘Oituz’ bar was awarded to those who took part in the Second Battle of Oituz between 8 and 20 August 1917; the ‘Carpati’ bar for participation in the battles in the Carpathian Mountains (Muntii Carpaţi), scene of some of the bitterest fighting and most difficult conditions of the war, between mid-October and mid-November 1916; the ‘Ardeal’ bar was awarded for participation in the offensive across the Carpathian Mountains into Transylvania between 28 August and 8 October 1916. ‘Ardeal’ is the Romanian word for Transylvania, Hungarian territory during World War I but occupied by Romanian forces in 1918, its Romanian majority declaring union with Romania on 1 December 1918, subsequently recognised by the Treaty of Trianon in 1920. The medal is becoming harder to find and is now rarely found with three original bars.

 
Commemorative Cross for the 1916-1918 War with ‘Oituz’, ‘Carpati’ and ‘Ardeal’ bars (Crucea Comemorativă a Războiului 1916-1918 cu bareti ‘Oituz’, ‘Carpaţi’ şi ‘Ardeal’)
Click to enlarge
Commemorative Cross for the 1916-1918 War with ‘Oituz’, ‘Carpati’ and ‘Ardeal’ bars (Crucea Comemorativă a Războiului 1916-1918 cu bareti ‘Oituz’, ‘Carpaţi’ şi ‘Ardeal’)
Click to enlarge
Commemorative Cross for the 1916-1918 War with ‘Oituz’, ‘Carpati’ and ‘Ardeal’ bars (Crucea Comemorativă a Războiului 1916-1918 cu bareti ‘Oituz’, ‘Carpaţi’ şi ‘Ardeal’)
Click to enlarge
Commemorative Cross for the 1916-1918 War with ‘Oituz’, ‘Carpati’ and ‘Ardeal’ bars (Crucea Comemorativă a Războiului 1916-1918 cu bareti ‘Oituz’, ‘Carpaţi’ şi ‘Ardeal’)
Click to enlarge
Commemorative Cross for the 1916-1918 War with ‘Oituz’, ‘Carpati’ and ‘Ardeal’ bars (Crucea Comemorativă a Războiului 1916-1918 cu bareti ‘Oituz’, ‘Carpaţi’ şi ‘Ardeal’)
Click to enlarge
Commemorative Cross for the 1916-1918 War with ‘Oituz’, ‘Carpati’ and ‘Ardeal’ bars (Crucea Comemorativă a Războiului 1916-1918 cu bareti ‘Oituz’, ‘Carpaţi’ şi ‘Ardeal’)
Click to enlarge
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